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sPLA2-IIA: A new biomarker for Cardiovascular Disease Risk

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Cardiovascular disease

Randox is pleased to introduce sPLA2- IIA, an automated assay for research use only, allowing continual development and enhancement of your current niche cardiac risk testing panel.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death globally, with an estimated 17.7 million people dying each year. This figure represents approximately 31 percent of all global deaths. This figure is set to increase to over 23.6 million by 2030. These startling statistics highlight the urgent need for better and earlier identification of at risk individuals. This is especially true as in many cases CVD can be prevented with appropriate lifestyle changes. This article elaborates about a novel biomarker for use in CVD risk assessment.

Traditional and routinely run biomarkers include Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides. There is however, a growing body of research indicating that further risk assessment biomarkers need to be considered.

These conventional risk assessment markers detect a mere 20 percent of all CVD patients. As the prevalence of CVD continues to rise worldwide, the need for reliable risk markers has never been more important.

Early risk assessment helps to reduce the risk of a cardiac event occurring. Identifying those at highest risk of CVD and ensuring they receive appropriate treatment can prevent premature death. Early risk assessment is particularly important for those people who have one or more risk factors including hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipidaemia.

By 2030, it is estimated that almost 23.6 million people globally will die from CVD, with heart disease and stroke projected to remain the leading causes of death. In this light, early diagnosis is an essential step in reducing the number of affected individuals.

The financial burden that CVD places on the national health services makes the development of a diagnostic biomarker even more essential.

sPLA2-IIA, a member of the secretory phospholipase A2 family, has been found to have clinical utility as an inflammatory biomarker specifically in the diagnosis of CVD risk. The addition of sPLA2-IIA compliments the existing cardiac risk panel from Randox, providing a different outlook and method of assessing cardiac concerns in patients. sPLA2 -IIA is the prototypic member of the group II sPLA2 subfamily and has been shown to be induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli in a wide variety of cells and tissues. It has been found to be associated with a number of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, Crohn’s disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coronary artery disease abdatherosclerosis. These factors have contributed to its nickname, “inflammatory sPLA2 “. sPLA2 –IIA, production of fatty acids and biologically active phospholipids plays an important role in platelet, monocyte, and endothelial activation, processes known to be critical steps in atherogenesis. Unlike traditional cardiac biomarkers used to predict adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), sPLA2 -IIA has been shown to act at multiple pathways involved in atherogenesis, from lipid oxidation to modulation of vascular and inflammatory cell activation and apoptosis.

Key benefits of randox sPLa2-iia

• A niche product-It means that Randox is one of the only manufacturers to provide the sPLA2-IIA mass test in an automated biochemistry format

• Applications available providing details about instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox sPLA2-IIA assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

• Liquid ready-to-use reagents for convenience and ease-of- use

• Latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method delivering high performance

• Dedicated controls and calibrators available- It offers a complete testing package

• Automated assay which removes the inconvenience and time consumption associated with traditional ELISA based testing

Other niche cardiac Markers frOM randox

LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) consists of several different subclasses of particles with different sizes and densities. Research has found that these subclasses play a role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and CVD. Most significantly is the impact that small dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) has on this process. Circulating sdLDL-C readily undergoes multiple atherogenic modifications in blood which increases its atherogenicity.

sdLDL-C has a lower affinity to the hepatic LDL-C receptor, thus circulates in the blood longer than larger LDL-C. sdLDL-C has a stronger affinity to vessel wall heparin sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs), which means that sdLDL-C can more readily permeate the arterial wall. sdLDL-C is also liable to oxidation from its physicochemical properties which leads to foam cell formation. As sdLDL-C is particularly atherogenic, a person with elevated sdLDL-C levels has a three-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI).

sdLDL-C measurement provides a more comprehensive understanding of the risk of lipoproteins within a patient and is more comprehensive in detecting cardiovascular risk compared to the traditional LDL-C test. Randox also offer a comprehensive range of niche cardiac assays including adiponectin, lipoprotein (a) and H-FABP.

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