A new diagnostic tool that could help predict a fatal complication in lung transplantation patients, have developed by University of Michigan researchers. In the complication known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), scar tissue builds up in the lungs and chokes off the ability to breathe. BOS is the leading cause of death for those who survive one year after lung transplantation and more than half of recipients will develop BOS within five years. There is currently no cure.With the help of diagnostic tool, doctors can intervene earlier and, ultimately, to provide life-saving treatments. The researchers recently discovered that patients who had a high number of stem cells in their lungs six months after transplantation were much more likely to develop BOS than those with lower counts. The findings were recently published online ahead of print publication in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. The translational study also highlights the importance of the lab-to-bedside cooperation of basic and clinical research, Lama says.